London Aquatic center

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Project type : New Construction

Building Type : Swimming pool

Construction Year : 2005

Climate zone : [Cfb] Marine Mild Winter, warm summer, no dry season.

Net Floor Area : 42 866 m2

Other Construction/refurbishment cost : 331 000 000 €

Number of Shower/day : 17 500

Shower/day Cost/m2 : 7 722 €/m2

Cost/Shower/day : 18 914 €/Shower/day

Olympic Park , E20 2ZQ London, United Kingdom

// Description

Abstract ‘Legacy’ is the concept that underlies the sustainability agenda of the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games, embracing temporary infrastructure and venues to leave behind a vibrant, productive community with world-class, affordable sporting facilities. The Aquatics Centre, developed as an architectural icon, was the most complex venue constructed on the Olympic Park. This case study explores the integration of sustainability into the Aquatics Centre, providing a balanced view of the venue’s sustainability credentials and considering its contribution to the sustainability agenda beyond the boundaries of the Park. The Aquatics Centre London’s bid to host the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games presented a comprehensive vision for the first sustainable Games. In 2007, the Olympic Delivery Authority (ODA) embodied this commitment in its sustainable Development Strategy. The Aquatics Centre’s design featured in the bid, with an iconic wave-like roof defining the gateway to the Park for the majority of visitors. Temporary seating structures provide a 17,500-seat Games-time capacity for the venue. After the Games these are replaced by a 14-metre-high cantilevered glazed curtain wall, reducing capacity to a legacyappropriate 2,500 and flooding the interior with natural daylight.

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Data reliability : Assessor

// Stakeholders

Contractor Name : Olympic Delivery Authority

Construction Manager Name : Zaha Hadid Architects

website :

Construction Manager
Name : Glenn Morley et Sara Klomps
Manufacturer Name : Architen Landrell Associates (ALA)

Address: Station Road, Chepstow NP16 5PF. Contact: 01291 638200. Email: Website :

DesignerName : Tensys (Design office)

Website :

Manufacturer Name : Serge ferrari

ZI BP 54 38352 LA TOUR DU PIN CEDEX Tél : 04 74 83 59 59 Fax : 04 74 83 59 44 Website :

Owner approach of sustainability

The concept of the London Aquatic Center in the environmental approach of the organizers: to build permanent structures to the extent that they found a use after the event, and to build temporary structures in the opposite case.

Thus, only the central building will be part of the Olympic legacy: an aquatic center with a capacity of 2,500 seats. The wings which shelter the removable stands of 17,500 places during the competition could be disassembled after. Composite materials will be re-used in the UK as new tensile structures.

Architectural description : Design Concept The architectural concept of the London Aquatics Centre is inspired by the fluid geometry of water in motion, creating spaces and a surrounding environment in sympathy with the river landscape of the Olympic Park. An undulating roof sweeps up from the ground as a wave - enclosing the pools of the Centre with its unifying gesture of fluidity, whilst also describing the volume of the swimming and diving pools.

The London Aquatics Centre is designed to have the flexibility to accommodate the size and capacity of the London 2012 Olympic Games whilst also providing the optimum size and capacity for use in Legacy mode after the 2012 Games.

The podium element allows for the containment of a variety of differentiated and cellular programmatic elements into a single architectural volume which is seen to be completely assimilated with the bridge and the landscape. The podium emerges from the bridge to cascade around the pool hall to the lower level of the canal.

The pool hall is expressed above the podium level by a large roof which arches along the same axis as the pools. Its form is generated by the sightlines for the spectators during the Olympic mode.

Double-curvature geometry has been used to create a structure of parabolic arches that define its form. The roof undulates to
differentiate the volumes of the competition and diving pools, and extends beyond the pool hall envelope to cover the external areas of the podium and entrance on the bridge.

The roof structure is grounded at three points of the centre (two points at the northwest end on the bridge; and one single point to the south east end). This structural arrangement ensured 7,500 temporary spectator seats could be installed along either side of the pools in Olympic mode (total 15,000 temporary seats) with no structural obstructions.

After the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games, this temporary seating has been removed and replaced with glazing panels, leaving a capacity of 2,500 seats for community use and future national/international events, with a significantly reduced pool hall volume.

// Energy

Energy consumption Primary energy need : 794,00 kWhpe/m2.year

Primary energy need for standard building : 3 249,00 kWhpe/m2.year

Calculation method : Other CEEB : 0 kWhpe/€

Breakdown for energy consumption : Annual energy usage on the Part "L" energy model of the Aquatic Center : 50% Equipment 42% Heating 5% Lighting 2% Fans, pumps, controls 1% Colling
Envelope performance Users\' control system opinion : RIBA Stage L2 and Stage L3 for the Olympic Mode was undertaken in 2011 and 2012 respectively.

Very positive feedback was received from ODA, LOCOG, the IOC and users such as athletes, press and spectators. RIBA Stage 2 for the Legacy Mode was completed in December 2013 and L3 has been on-going since then with the pool to be open to the public from March 2014.
Real final energy consumption : (2017)

// Renewables & systems

Systems Heating system : Urban network Heat pump Combined Heat and Power Others
Hot water system : Heat pump Other hot water system
Cooling system : Reversible heat pump Others VAV Syst. (Variable Air Volume system) Others
Ventilation system : compensated Air Handling Unit
Renewable systems : Biomass boiler Other, specify
District heating and power supply for Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park from a combination of biomass boilers and CCHP facilities for a 30% reduction in carbon emissions.

Solutions enhancing nature free gains : optimisation of the main roof geometry to balance the benefit of passive solar heating and the risk of summer overheating
Smart Building BMS : The main pool hall is naturally lit, the pool tanks are insulated, and an adaptable environmental control system allows ventilation to be customised within specific areas of the large volume space. This gives the building’s operators the option of avoiding excessive use of mechanical ventilation in areas where it isn’t needed.

// Environment

GHG emissions GHG in use : 53,60 KgCO2/m2/year Methodology used : IES VE 6.1.1 PartL 2008 NCM /!\ Total emission without GHG before use Building lifetime : 25,00 year(s) GHG Cradle to Grave : 1 340,00 KgCO2 /m2 Calculations of carbon emissions use the following conversion factors: Natural Gas 0.198 kgCO2/kWh Grid Electricity 0.517 kgCO2/kWh (Divide by seasonal COP for Heat Pumps) Fuel Oil 0.297 kgCO2/kWh Biomass 0.013 kgCO2/kWh Biogas 0.018 kgCO2/kWh
Life Cycle Analysis Based on EVEA's Life Cycle Analyzes, roof and wall recycling via Texyloop® has reduced environmental impacts by 50%, producing 23 tonnes of 2nd generation raw materials. Material impact on GHG emissions : 50,00 Eco-design material : We substantially reduced the carbon footprint of the London Aquatics Centre by primarily using secondary aggregates and cement replacement material – in essence, recycled rather than ‘new’ concrete.

We were the first team designing 2012 Olympic venues to push beyond the standard supplier offering of 50% coarse aggregate substitution. In the end, more than 75% secondary aggregates were used in some concrete mixes to offset limestone aggregates used for the pool tank. We exceeded targets set by the ODA, with concrete contributing just 3% to the building’s carbon footprint.

We were awarded a BREEAM Innovation Credit for our use of concrete mixes.
Over 150,000 tonnes of concrete was used in the Aquatics Centre and the integrated pedestrian bridge. The dedication of the team in maximising the sustainability of the concrete achieved over 4,000 tonnes of embodied CO2 savings and substitution of over 29,000 tonnes of primary aggregate, equivalent to 28 per cent of the total.

In total, over 80 per cent of the 235,000 tonnes of loose aggregates used were from a recycled source, a significantly higher percentage than any other venue on the Park. Temporary stands enclosed with phthalate-free PVC.

The majority of recycled aggregate was construction and demolition waste from elsewhere in the London area. A further 23,000 tonnes was obtained from the site-wide soil hospital which created blended engineering materials from the soil-washing remediation process.

Water management Consumption from water network : 40 000,00 m3 Consumption of grey water : 2 700,00 m3 Water Self Sufficiency Index : 0,06 % Water Consumption/m2 : 0,93 m3/m2 Water Consumption/Shower/day : 2,29 m3/Shower/day To reduce the building’s potable water demand by more than 40% (against standard designs), we developed a system that uses backwash water from the swimming pool filtration plant to flush urinals and toilets.

Further savings were achieved via lowflow sanitary fittings. With greatest demand for potable water coming from showering, incorporating low-flow showers and basins delivered 35% potable water saving. Rainwater harvesting was also incorporated into the design, with harvested water used to irrigate the green wall at the southern end of the building.

Indoor Air quality Indoor Air quality : We made extensive use of measures to maximise energy efficiency, including high levels of insulation and envelope air tightness, low velocity ventilation systems with high efficiency heat recovery, and water based heating systems with variable speed pumps. An Ammonia chiller plant provides space cooling and-uses rejected heat for pool water heating.

// Products

Precontraint 1202 S2 Black out NPP Roof
Producer : Serge Ferrari

Contact : ZI BP 54 38352 LA TOUR DU PIN CEDEX Tél : 04 74 83 59 59 Fax : 04 74 83 59 44


Product category: Finishing work / Partitions, insulation



Totale surface : 18,000m²
Light construction system The fully demountable wings are covered with 18,000 m² of opaque Precontraint 1002 S2. A lightweight construction solution, this composite membrane seals the roof and contributes to the building's luminous and thermal ambience. Paradox of the structure, the composite membrane that is usually suitable for curves is used here in flat interlining, in spans of 7 meters. It slides in aluminum profiles fixed on the steel frame. The Serge Ferrari composite is NPP * and guarantees the required level of resistance, aesthetics (whiteness and brilliance) and the imposed fire classification rating Euroclass B-s2, d0. Serge Ferrari is the only manufacturer of the sector to have risen to the challenge.


Stamisol FT 381 NPP
Producer : Serge Ferrari

Contact : ZI BP 54 38352 LA TOUR DU PIN CEDEX Tél : 04 74 83 59 59 Fax : 04 74 83 59 44

Product category: Structural work / Structure - Masonry - Facade
Description :
Totale surface : 7,000m²
Exterior security cladding for stands 7,000 m² of white Stamisol FT 381 openwork composite material envelops and secures the temporary stands. Its intrinsic characteristics and its recyclability have been decisive in the choice of material: Stamisol FT 381 reduces heat transmission and promotes air circulation with a porosity of 28%, thus helping to regulate the hygrometry of the interior space. Designed for large ventilated facades, Stamisol FT is of unparalleled strength. It is rated B-s2, d0 and is 100% recyclable.
Comments :

// Costs

Construction/refurbishment cost : 331 000 000 €
Construction and exploitation costs Total cost of the building : 331 000 000,00 €

// Urban Environment

Site Context
The London Aquatics Centre is located at the south eastern edge of Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park on the new Stratford City Bridge giving pedestrian access to the park from the new Stratford City development and public transportation.
The Aquatics Centre is planned on an orthogonal axis perpendicular to the Stratford City Bridge. Along this axis are laid out the three pools.

The training pool is located under the bridge whilst the competition and diving pools are within a large volumetric pool hall. The overall strategy is to frame the base of the pool hall as a podium by surrounding it and connecting it into the bridge.

Land plot area : 21897 m2
Built-up area : 75 %
Parking spaces : There are 111 Pay & Display car parking spaces in the car park located next to the London Aquatics Centre.

Otherwise, there is plenty of parking available in nearby Westfield.
There are more than 140 cycle racks outside the London Aquatics Centre, including a Santander Cycles docking station located outside the centre

// Building Environnemental Quality

Indoor air quality and health biodiversity works (including waste management) acoustics comfort (visual, olfactive, thermal) waste management (related to activity) water management energy efficiency renewable energies building end of life management integration in the land building process products and materials

// Contest

Contest categories
Low Carbon , Users' Choice

The London Aquatic Center symbolizes the environmental approach of the organizer: build permanent structures if they can be used after the event or temporary, where appropriate. Thus, only the central part (2,500 places) is preserved as Olympic legacy. The wings, which offeredadditional capacity of 15 000 seats, are today dismounted. Composite materials used for the roof and outer walls have been removed, packaged and shipped at Texyloop, to generate raw materials of second low environmental impact generation. [non final version]

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