Energy Saving Potentials and Air Quality Benefits of Urban Heat Island Mitigation
This article suggests that cooling demand can be decreased through a large-scale implementation of heat-island mitigation measures.
Simple ways to cool the cities are the use of reflective surfaces (rooftops and pavements) and planting of urban vegetation. The direct effect of planting trees around a building or using reflective materials on roofs or walls is to alter the energy balance and cooling requirements of that particular building. However, when trees are planted and albedo is modified throughout an entire city, the energy balance of the whole city is modified, producing city-wide changes in climate (which are referred to as indirect effects).
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