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Energy companies and energy services: Core Theme Series Report CAESDII/CTSR/4.1

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This report summarises the work carried out during the first year of the second Concerted Action for the Energy Services Directive (CA ESD) on the topic of energy companies and energy services. The objective of the work was to investigate business models, supporting frameworks and policies to develop and foster the energy services market, collecting, presenting and discussing interesting examples and good practice.
Energy services give the Energy Services Directive (Directive on energy end-use efficiency and energy services) its name and are thought to be among the most cost-effective means to improving energy end-use efficiency.
One of the purposes of the Directive is “creating the conditions for the development and promotion of a market for energy services and for the delivery of other energy efficiency improvement measures to final consumers”.
The focus of this work was on two areas:
a) energy services for large buildings and industries, with particular attention on business models and
b) small clients – households and small and medium enterprises and related policies. Information was collected from Member States as well as from Norway and Croatia via questionnaires on the situation in their countries, including examples and good practices.

More information on these examples can be found on the CA ESD website at: and


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