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The typology of the residential building stock in Albania and the modelling of its low-carbon transformation

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The Regional Environmental Centre for Central and Eastern Europe (REC), the Institute for Climate Protection, Energy and Mobility (IKEM) and the Budapest University of Technology & Economics (BME) are pleased to share a series of new reports, datasets, and tools that provide information on the topologies of the residential building stock in Albania, Serbia, and Montenegro as well as scenarios for the sector low-carbon transformation.


The deliverables were prepared within a project on the support for low-emission development (SLED) in South East Europe (SEE) that was funded by the Austrian Development Agency, the Operational Unit of the Austrian Development Cooperation, and the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management.


The project was only possible with the contribution of local teams, including the experts of the Ministry of Energy and Industry of Albania, the Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure of Albania, the National Agency of Natural Resources of Albania, the University of Belgrade, the University of Montenegro, and Expeditio Architect of Montenegro.



Key messages:


  • The level of thermal energy services consumed by the SEE households is inadequate to address their needs. Households heat only part of their dwelling for very few hours per day. They also consume significantly more unsustainable wood than reported by national energy balances. In the future, the increase in energy consumption due to higher demand for thermal comfort will offset the reduction in energy consumption due to the business-as-usual improvement of the sector energy efficiency.


  • Retrofitting the residential buildings can significantly reduce household energy consumption at the same time as offering them higher thermal comfort and numerous other benefits. The priority of sector segments for policy-making differs among the countries. In Albania, it is important to ensure that buildings built after 1991 will be retrofitted, whereas in Serbia and Montenegro the priority segment is the building stock constructed in 1971 – 1990. In all countries, the largest energy savings in absolute and relative terms are in small buildings.


  • The scenarios, which consider the tightening of building codes and the introduction of financial incentives, may realize a large share of these savings. The investment need for thermal efficiency retrofits is very high. Such a sector transformation requires a careful design and massive provision of financial products for the residential energy efficiency to leverage private finance. The interventions should be coupled with business-as-usual renovations. Other benefits of the scenarios beyond energy cost savings should also be considered when calculating the benefits of energy efficiency.



The results are available at any level of the building stock segmentation. Such a detailed analysis has never been done before for these countries.


Visit the project website at the IKEM webpage or the REC webpage to download country reports, datasets describing thermal properties of the building stock by stock segment, and software tools modeling the building stock decarbonisation.